tv Global 3000 LINKTV January 11, 2014 4:30am-5:01am PST
>> hello and welcome to global 3000. your weekly check on the issues that affect us all. here is what we have coming up for you today -- biodiversity in south africa. people fight to preserve their ancient land. the long struggle for peace in colombia. a piece and up of -- a priest and a poet seek ways to end the bloodshed. and what is the best way to preserve water in the middle
east? start by putting a price on it. south africa has many treasures. first and foremost, it's people, who have shown the world through the leadership of the late nelson mandela that revenge is not the answer to oppression. second, those found in the northwest of the country. in august and september, this area explodes into a flood of green blossoms. you could be tricked into thinking all is well with the environment, but it is not. we took a trip to a region renowned for biodiversity.
>> i am rufus and i work for conservation south africa. the landscape here was wonderful and sumptuous when our forefathers lived here. they lived in a sustainable way. with the arrival of colonists, people started plowing, and so all of these gorgeous things, this beautiful landscape, was increasingly destroyed. >> this stretch of land is more than 200 kilometers in size. it is an enormous semi desert, in which more than 100 50 plant
species are in need of conservation. the environmentalists at conservation south africa are especially concerned about rising temperatures in the region. >> we are in the most bio diverse and arid zone in the world, and it's already a hot and very dry place. so what we are experiencing for the future is it's hotter and drier, and we already have records showing that the temperature in this area is increasing. with a combination of reduced rainfall and increased temperatures, we are expected to have some new species losses in some of the endemic vegetation types, as well as possible desertification in the summer rainfall grasslands. >> num aqua land is losing its
unique abundance of vegetation, mainly due to overgrazing. here, the vegetation is still intact. there are still violets and rare shrubs. a great deal of biodiversity. we would like to see that return to the whole area. what we have instead are many examples of overgrazing. here the plant diversity has completely disappeared. there's only renault stir bush
left -- renoster bush left. there are too many fires here. the fires destroyed a lot of plants. we do have a fire management plan, but it is not implemented. >> namaqualand was once a mining area, so the environmental problems in the region have a lot to do with changes in the social structure. like here in nababeeb, many of the mines have been completely exploited, and there are few jobs. many of the nama have returned to keeping goats and sheep. a grazing plan is now intended to help limit the damage from
grazing. the livestock owners use anatolian shepherd dogs to help tend their flocks. this farmer says he has not lost any sheep since he got the dog. it can sense lynxes and jackals from far off and chases them away. >> what worries us our -- our our few wetlands. they are severely damaged. but with state aid, we have been able to start restoring them. the goal of restoring this
wetland is to keep the water back. in the past, everything just drained away. now it stays put longer, and helps the many rare plants in the region to survive. >> to help protect the enormous area, unemployed young people are being trained as rangers. it is an investment in the future. among other things, the eco- rangers help farmers raise their livestock sustainably. >> my culture and this landscape lived hand in hand. when the land-use change, that connection broke. i hope that if we change the landscape for the better again, this connection will be restored.
i wish we would live sustainably, as our forefathers did. not to our advantage, but for the good of the environment and our biodiversity, so that generations that follow us can also live that way. >> but what are the chances that they will really be able to do just that? of course, nowadays it is easy to find organizations dedicated to saving the elephants or many other endangered species, but if we talk about saving biodiversity, what does that actually mean? here at global 3000, we will be doing our best to answer that question with a series of reports showing how an ecosystem is much more than just the sum of its parts.
at first, here is biodiversity in a nutshell. our global count. >> the variety of species on earth is just one criterion of biodiversity. it is estimated that some one .8 million species have been scientifically identified and classified. but many are still unknown, because scientists cannot easily enter their habitats. when they are able to, as with a recent large-scale research project in the deep sea, they always discover new species. each living creature is unique. it's the genetic diversity within a species that makes it resilient, which is why genetic variety is also a pillar of i/o diversity, as is the diversity of the ecosystems -- of biodiversity, as is the diversity of the ecosystems. they fulfill the most complex
tasks, providing, for instance, fresh air and rain water. but many ecosystems are under a cute threat. mangrove swamps, for instance, which protect coastlines and provide breeding grounds for fish. the destruction of these ecosystems has dramatic consequences for biodiversity. at least 30% of all currently living species could be extinct by the middle of the next century. some scientists say it could be 50%. there have been several mass extinctions over the course of evolution. but this time, it is being caused by humans, through the clearcutting of rain forest or the destruction of soils by industrial agriculture. for the purposes of protecting species variety, 34 regions have been named bio diversity hotspots. most are located along the equator, for instance in and around madagascar are. the country has many species of
plants and animals not found anywhere else in the world. that includes dozens of lemur species and more than 11,000 kinds of plants. it is especially important to preserve this diversity during these times of climate change. that's the only way the species will be able to adapt to the junk -- adapt to the changing environmental conditions. >> adapting to the environment is one thing, but how do you adapt to five decades of violence? for generations, colombians have known only civil war between the government and the farc rebel movement. all hopes for a resolution now rest on talks that have gone on for over a year. after the most recent act of violence blamed on the rebels, the farc has announced a month- long unilateral cease-fire will stop a real chance for peace? or just the latest bid to avoid
retaliation by government forces? whatever comes of it, there is a growing movement in colombian civil society that is ready to leave the violence behind. >> the heart of bogotá's historic city center. the musician playing here has a political message for his country. >> now we are going to play a song on an instrument that is very important to me. i built this guitar to look like a weapon, an ak-47. there are tens of thousands of these in our country, and the farc uses them to kill people every day. >> cesar lopez is one of colombia's youngest and best- known musical artist. he campaigns against violence and the guerrillas in his country. >> it is very important to know that music is a vehicle for me. it moves people, and then you can start discussions with them.
of course, music alone cannot solve problems, but it can at least spark dialogue. >> the guerrilla war has cost the lives of some 200,000 people over the past four decades. but now it seems peace is within reach in colombia. for the past year, the farc has been negotiating in havana with the government. lopez has also been eagerly awaiting a peace deal. the 40-year-old has lived with the civil war his entire life. >> our country is going through a really difficult time. never, not even because of the dead and all the people wounded in battle, have we been ready to forgive and to reconcile. , but that could happen soon. once people start asking themselves whether they are ready, then art can play a very important role in that process.
>> just a few kilometers away, in the center of bogotá, security is tight for a first- time event. the mayor of the city wants to attend a memorial service for victims of the civil war. for a long time that would've been unimaginable, because he is responsible for the deaths of many people. he used to be a member of the guerrillas. the country has this man to thank for his gesture of reconciliation. father darío thinks the time is right. >> the colombians want peace. they are fed up with the war. but for that, they need to have the desire or even the need to forgive. they have to be open to reconciliation and to truly want justice.
>> darío is the one who made the peace talks between the government and the left-wing farc possible in the full -- in the first place. his churches where victims and their opponents are sitting together for the first time. the priest says his work in poor neighborhoods has influenced him. that was where he met the families of the opposing sides and helped them reconcile. he thinks religion is the best incentive, he has wanted to be a priest since he was a child. >> it is the priests, the bishops, who are in close contact with the pain of the colombians, and they are the ones who can influence everyone else, the sons of the guerrillas, but also the sons of the foreman and the landowners.
and it could be this church that in the end plays a big role in helping bring about the signing of a peace deal. >> back with cesar lopez at the concert hall. >> how about a round of applause for the people who campaign against the civil war? >> the activist wants to talk about violence rather than pretend it doesn't happen. a musician and a priest -- each fights or keys in the country in a different way. never was a peace agreement as close as it is now. >> i think that columbia stands on the cusp of a new era. i think the chance has now arrived for us to finally see fresh perspectives. i think the war has drawn too much attention, and has crowded out creativity and normal life. and now the time is right for us all to feel like brothers and
sisters again. >> the people in darío's church want a lasting peace more than anything else. >> let's hope he can succeed. after declaring independence from serbia in 2006, montenegro has become an open multiethnic state, and is currently in negotiations to join the european union. we met 64-year-old christo, who runs a restaurant in the coastal balkan resort, to ask him for his take on globalization.
i like to eat everything that comes from the sea. i live next to the sea, so of course it all has to be fresh. a lot of my friends have been to cuba and they like it a lot. i hope that i will be able to go there next year. i am just a bit afraid that i might not want to come back. to me, globalization means that we will all be alike at some point. then you won't have to visit me and i won't have to visit you. everything will be the same everywhere. that's not good -- an unavoidable evil.
in my leisure time, of which i have less and less, i like to ride my motorcycle. but of course i also like to spend time with my relatives and my grandson. and then i get on my motorcycle and ride on our lovely roads. >> lebanon is one of the few nations in the middle east where water is still easily accessible. the population there is growing, while every day, large quantities of water seep from the country's system of aging and leaky pipes. the lebanese authorities are currently trying to make people more aware of how precious this resource really is. step one, put a price on it. that alone has made a real difference already. here's how. >> when the water meters are
read in hallelujah, it can quickly lead to heated debates. the neighborhood in the lebanese city of saigon is a pilot project area. normally in lebanon, people pay a flat rate for water -- the equivalent of 100 euros per household annually. but since water meters and precise bills were introduced, those costs have risen dramatically for some people. the more they use, the more they pay. >> it will be tight, money-wise, if the water costs rise, for washing or if i plan something in the garden and need to water it. but i can accept that. >> the city has 160 thousand residents. with support from germany, the city wants to install water meters for every household and give peace and -- and give people a reason to save the precious resource.
and for the first time, there are exact figures. the average person uses 135 liters per day. it's estimated that could be cut by 20%. wax investments in the water supply sector alone have been estimated at $4 billion over the next 15 years. so if you could cut usage by 20%, you could save around 800 million dollars in investments that then would not be necessary. >> that's money that's desperately needed, for the modernization of water works as well as the water mains across the country. in many parts of lebanon, running water is only available for a few hours a day. and when there is water, con list -- countless leaders sleep through -- countless liters ! seeped through leaky pipes into the sand.
the waterworks produces 40,000 cubic meters of drinking water a day. >> of that amount, less than half is used effectively by the customer. a large part is lost due to damaged networks, and we can assume that a not insignificant amount is illegally tapped. >> installing new mains is expensive and time-consuming. for cities such as this, the german experts had a simple and effective idea. this facility cost just 35,000 euros and reduces water pressure at night, when there is less demand. that means less water seeps out through leaky mains. >> it results in a savings of about 1000 cubic meters per day fee -- per day.
that's the equivalent of around 5000 to 6000 bathtubs of water per day. so it is a significant amount of water we can save this way. >> that reduces cost, and with it, customers water bills. at this newly built customer service center, including a call center, customers now have a central point of contact for complaints and repair orders. the goal of south lebanon water is to raise customers awareness of how valuable water is. >> a lot of people, they put in their minds that this is a government issue, there is no need to pay, and we can take the water and we don't pay, or we steal the water. we need to work hard in convincing the people the importance of protecting the water. >> but back to garden owner site. he used to water his lawn for hours at a time like this. now he water sparingly, in the evenings or mornings. his usage is measured by a water
meter, and in the end, he can decide himself how high his bill will be. >> the acceptance is basically relatively high. we haven't had a revolution. and i think it's something that's precedent-setting for the country. we'll try to implement this and other areas too, and gradually install water meters in the whole country. >> the water engineers goal is for all of lebanon to have a modern water and supply system, available 24 hours a day. they say it will take another 10 years to get there. >> but it is happening, and that's the main thing. after all, the more we wasted, the more expensive water will become. that was global 3000 this time around. if you've got something to add or would like to see any of today's reports again, you can do that by just heading to our website. we will be right here again for you next week if you like. for now, thanks for watching and bye-bye.a7guc>>